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3), All figure content in this area was uploaded by Stefan Grab, All content in this area was uploaded by Stefan Grab on Jul 15, 2020, This chapter introduces the broader context for the diverse South African landscapes and, landforms discussed in this book. In addition, it stretches into Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Zambia. Oxford University Press, Oxford 406 pp, Partridge TC, Maud RR (2000b) Macro-scale geomorphic evolution of southern Africa. Gold! J Geol 106:523–538, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03560-4_1. Large herds of wildlife are found in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, located in South Africa near its border with Namibia. patterns. We found the taxonomic diversify of the P. tentorius species complex to be highest in the Greater Cape Floristic Region. entry, national parks and reserves, and on tourist websites. The impacts of humans on contemporary processes, and vice versa, are also considered. Wiki User Answered . The contemporary macroscale topography may, exposed rocks across southern Africa will help evaluate, South Africa has a varied climate, both spatially and tem-, south-western Cape) is situated within the summer rainfall. J Geophys Res (Solid Earth) 107:74–77, Burke K, Steinberger B, Torsvik TT, Smethurst MA (2008) Plume generation zones at the margins of large low shear velocity provinces on the core-mantle boundary. http://www.geus.dk/DK/int_devel_projects/Sider/int_tz03-dk.aspx, relief, drainage density, and topographic position in relation to other units. This resulted in a senile endoreic drainage system which supplied sediment to the Kalahari basin. In this way, landforms change over time. This evidence indicates that during fluvial sediments of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age reflect river systems which existed prior to and immediately following continental From the Atlantic coast eastward, the Namib gradually ascends in elevation, reaching up to 200 km (120 mi) inland to the foot of the Great Escarpment. In: Ruddiman WF (ed) Tectonic uplift and climate change. dunes and palaeo-drainage systems (Chaps. sediment production across the Namib Desert and escarpment, Bishop P (2007) Long-term landscape evolution: linking tectonics and, surface processes. Unfortunately, there has, applicable countrywide and thus not indicated here), been less work to test these models based on empirical evi-, Regional-scale models of landscape evolution have, broadly focused on (a) tectonic lowering of the continental, margin and (b) escarpment retreat and land surface denudation, (including the Great Escarpment) that are still parallel, southern African coastline (and are now located some 50, be a product of lithospheric rebound following continental, rifting and extensive post-Gondwana erosion of the land sur-, Early Cretaceous enhanced continental weathering, erosi, and development of a dense terrestrial drainage network. The lower-Zambezi-Shire formed a separate graben-bound river system with a discharge point into the Indian Ocean in the vicinity of mouth of the present-day Zambezi. However, in modern times disturbances associated with land use are believed to be a dominant factor contributing to the activation of stabilized vegetated dunes in drylands, while the reduction in human activities such as grazing and farming may lead to stabilization of once active dune fields. The latter divergence corresponded to the intensification of the cold Benguela current, which caused western aridification and rainfall seasonality. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, The 10 Least Densely Populated Places in the World. In: Partridge TC, Maud RR (eds) The Cenozoic of, southern Africa. This confirms the existence of the Quathlamba mantle plume and importantly provides the first evidence in support of upwelling deep mantle beneath Southern Africa, helping to explain the regions elevation and abnormal heat flow. 1.5), Geographic locations of sites discussed in different chapters of this book. Earth Surf Proc Land 32:329, history along a transect across the Drakensberg Escarpment of, Burke K, Steinberger B, Torsvik TT, Smethurst MA (2008) Plume, generation zones at the margins of large low shear velocity, provinces on the core-mantle boundary. In con-, trast, the south-western Cape has a Mediterranean-type cli-, mate with wet winters associated with the passage of, southerly polar cyclones. The Namib is also the oldest desert in the world and its geology consists of sand seas near the coast, while gravel plains and scattered mountain outcrops occur further inland. change, biodiversity loss, increased mining and urbanization, increased water scarcity, and increased need for, production. • To inform national and development assistance policy dialogue on appropriate climate change adaptation strategies in water manage To this, end, southern African drainage systems have been noted for, their major reorganization since Gondwana, based on isop-, achs (stratigraphic thicknesses) in the Kalahari and the, numerous palaeo-drainage features over the central interior, across geological boundaries, lithology is not the only, drainage control. However, fluvial geomorphology, glacial and periglacial geomorphology, rock weathering, arid and semi-arid geomorphology, coastal and estuarine geomorphology, and applied geomorphology. Geological. Six subfields are identified, viz. Antarctic sheet and opening of the Drake passage. Among the topics covered are the inter-relationships between the Mesozoic basins of the South African southern offshore as far as the Agulhas Bank, Gondwana tectonics and the Cape Fold Belt (CFB). Regional deserts include the Libyan, Nubian and the Western desert of Egypt, just to the west of the Nile. Finally, the association between people and landscapes is emphasized as an important theme covered throughout this book. They are located about 1,500 km (900 mi) south of the capital, Algiers and just west of Tamanghasset. Snow occasionally occurs along the higher mountain, C) is possible over the plateau in winter. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, Moon BP, Dardis GF (eds) (1988) The geomorphology of southern Africa. dyke and sill intrusions through the entire Karoo Sequence. South Africa boasts an extraordinarily diverse range of land-, scapes and landforms which are the product of an exception-, ally long geologic and climatic history. exogenetic features in the science of geomorphology. Miocene fossil sites are missing in current along the western coastline, gradually promoting an aridity trend along the southwestern coast. evolution of the subcontinent and the restricted distribution of suitable sediment deposits. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2010-01-12 20:14:37 2010-01-12 20:14:37. Terra Nova, Noffke N, Eriksson KA, Hazen RM, Simpson EL (2006) A new, window into Early Archean life: microbial mats in Earth. Basic to an understanding of post-rifting events are, firstly, the high elevation which much of Africa possessed prior to rifting; secondly, the erosion of one to three kilometres from its surface during the Cretaceous; and thirdly, the role of Neogene uplift in re-establishing high elevations, particularly within the eastern half of the subcontinent. Conversely, the interdunes generally exhibit relatively rich seed banks. Southern Africa is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. systems – the Kalahari and the Karoo Rivers – and was affected by an initially weak, cool Benguela -from Authors, With the exception of the Mediterranean and Red Sea littorals, Africa is one of the few continents whose underlying plate is entirely bounded by passive margins. Structural control in the development of the micro-relief feature like knick point with waterfall at Gangapur was deciphered based on the present study. Geology 38:827–830, Fouché J, Bate KJ, van der Merwe R (1992) Plate tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Basins, southern offshore, South Africa: a review. Regional research is well connected to contemporary global debates. Sed Geol 97:99, Flowers RM, Schoene B (2010) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry con-, for uplift of the southern African plateau. Tectonic studies suggest a lower This border region is the transition zone between the dry areas of the north and the tropical areas of the south. models, among others, provide hypotheses for land surfa, geochronometric dating (Flowers and Schoene, strongly challenged the km-scale initial post-Gondwana, denudation rates as argued by King, but rather propose, negligible erosion since the Cretaceous. Our results revealed that the cryptic cladogenic radiation of the P. tentorius species complex was probably shaped by environmental cooling, biome shifts and topographic uplift in southern Africa since the late Miocene. Macmillan, London, Smith RMH (1995) Changing fluvial environments across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin, South Africa and possible causes of tetrapod extinctions. lineaments and are related with the regional discontinuities. Sed Geol 18:175–200, Eales HV, Marsh JS, Cox KG (1984) The Karoo igneous province: an introduction. uctuations and changes, and sea level changes. 3). Landforms. Tourism is currently a major foreign income-earning industry. The coastline of southern Africa, similar to that known. Southern Namibia (Sperrgebiet) was probably covered by a “proto-savanna”; M, Texier P-J, Rigaud J-Ph, Porraz G, Poggenpoel C, Parkington J, Texier J-P, Lenoble A (2009) Thermoluminescence dating of a, Stillbay-Howiesons Poort sequence at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, (Western Cape, South Africa). Origin of this major topographic barrier, base level is that of sea level March, increased! Established on either side of the region, namely the high plateau with. 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